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The alternative medical modality of holistic, natural,

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Hermes once separated two serpents entwined in mortal combat to bring about peace. These serpents were later included in the medical Caduceus as a sign of wellbeing.



















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You are viewing: H4H Monographs - Musculoskeletal Wellbeing - The System - Level 2
to H4H Monographs - Level 1

Musculoskeltal Wellbeing
The System

1. The System
The musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system) is an organ system with dual primary functions of form and support and protection for the body as well as initiation and control of movement. It is composed of the body's bones (the skeleton) and joints, spine, muscles, ligaments, tendons and other connective tissue to support and bind tissues and organs together.

2. Bones & Joints
Whilst the number of bones varies according to the method used to derive the count the average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones. In addition to its two primary functions of support, protection and movement its other functions include the storage of certain vital nutrients and production of red and white blood cells.

Scroll right for pictures of joints >>>>>>>>>

Bones are rigid organs, lightweight yet strong and hard and come in a variety of shapes and sizes the largest of which is the femur bone. Their strength and light weight is a result of a specially toughened (solid) outer layer combined with a honeycombed (hollow) inner cellular structure. Bone tissue is not static but actively forming and remodeling in response to physical demands. As a result of its dynamic status at sites of constant excess pressure bone may respond by overgrowth resulting in a spur formation. Similarly in situations of inflammation or mineral imbalance bone may lose density and increase in brittleness (osteoporosis).  

Joints are structures that connect individual bones and may even allow bones to move against each other to permit even greater movement. The inner lining of the joint contains a smooth synovial membrane that provides a lubricating fluid. This synovia is often the first site of joint inflammation (synovitis). Additionally there is a fluid filled sac around each joint called a bursa which function as a cushion or lubricating pad to allow a smooth surface between tendon and bone. When the bursas especially around the knee or shoulder become inflamed the condition is referred to as bursitis. 

3. The Spine
The spine is a column of bone and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis. It encloses and supports the the body as well as protects the spinal cord which is a column of nerve tracts running from every area of the body to the brain.

Scroll right for pictures of the spine >>>>>>>>>

The spine is made up of approximately thirty-three bones called "vertebrae."
Each pair of vertebrae is connected by a joint which stabilises the vertebral column and allows it to move. Between each pair of vertebrae is a disk-shaped pad of fibrous cartilage with a jelly-like core, which is called the "intervertebral" disk - or usually just the "disk". These disks cushion the vertebrae during movement.

4. The Muscles
The two types of muscles associated with the musculoskeletal system are the skeletal and smooth muscles respectively. Skeletal muscles are attached to bones and arranged in opposing groups around joints to provide movement whilst smooth muscles are used to control the flow of substances within the lumens of hollow organs (eg the gastrointestinal tract for nutrient digestion and cardiac muscles for blood circulation). Skeletal muscles are consciously controlled (voluntary) whilst smooth muscles are not consciously controlled (involuntary).

5. The Ligaments
A ligament is a band of dense, white, fibrous elastic tissue connecting together the ends of bones to form a joint. Most ligaments limit dislocation, or prevent certain movements that may cause breaks such as hyper extension and hyper flexion as well as certain directional movement. Since they are elastic they increasingly lengthen under pressure to the extent that they may break resulting in an unstable joint.

Scroll right for pictures of ligaments & tendon >>>>>>>>>

6. The Tendons
A tendon is similar to a ligament in that it is a tough, flexible band of fibrous connective tissue but instead of holding joints together tendons join muscles to bones. This is achieved by muscle fibers binding to tendons at their distal & proximal ends, and the tendon in turn binding to the periosteum of individual bone from which the muscle originated. When a muscle contracts the tendon relays the force to the rigid bone causing movement. Again like ligaments tendons can stretch substantially allowing them to function as springs during locomotion thereby saving energy.

What should I do next?
Contact Dr. Peter Darashah and discuss your concerns with him.
Should  treatment be advisable a consultation can be readily arranged either in person or through eConsultation.

Dr. Peter Darashah

Ph.D.,M.Sc (Lond), B.Sc., DIHom (Pract),FBIH, MARH

Nutrition Consultant & Homeopathic Physician

(087) 2621943

Consultations held at :-

The Natural Health Centre, 34 Princes Str., Cork.

   H4H Monograph


Musculoskeletal Wellness
Musculoskeletal Wellbeing 



Hip & Femur bones
Hip & Femur bones

Bursa Sacs visible at top & bottom right
(click image to enlarge)

The Spine
(click image to enlarge)

A muscular man
A muscular man

(click image to enlarge)

Tendon of the elbow - CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE
Tendon of the elbow
(click image to enlarge)

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