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The alternative medical modality of holistic, natural,

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Hermes once separated two serpents entwined in mortal combat to bring about peace. These serpents were later included in the medical Caduceus as a sign of wellbeing.



















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You are viewing: H4H Monographs - Musculoskeletal Wellbeing -Spine - Level 2
to H4H Monographs - Level 1

Musculoskeltal Wellbeing
The Spine

The spine is a column of bone and cartilage that extends from the base of the skull to the pelvis. It encloses and supports the the body as well as protects the spinal cord which is a column of nerve tracts running from every area of the body to the brain.

The spine is made up of approximately thirty-three bones called "vertebrae."
Each pair of vertebrae is connected by a joint which stabilizes the vertebral column and allows it to move. Between each pair of vertebrae is a disk-shaped pad of fibrous cartilage with a jelly-like core, which is called the "intervertebral" disk - or usually just the "disk". These disks cushion the vertebrae during movement. 

Scroll right for pictures of the spine >>>>>>>>>

Summary of Vertebrae


# of Vertebrae

Body Area





C1 C7




T1 T12


5 or 6

Low Back

L1 L5


5 (fused)


S1 S5






The vertebrae are bound together by two long, thick ligaments running the entire length of the spine and by smaller ligaments between each pair of vertebrae.


The anterior longitudinal ligament consists of strong, dense fibers, located inside the vertebrae. They span nearly the whole length of the spine, beginning with the second vertebrae (or "axis"), and extending to the sacrum. The ligament is thicker in the middle (or "thoracic" region). Some of the shorter fibers are separated by circular openings, which allow for the passage of blood vessels. Several groups of muscles are also attached to the vertebrae, and these control movements of the spine as well as to support it.

The posterior longitudinal ligament runs from the brain to the tailbone vertically behind and beside the spinal canal.

Finally the ligamentum flavum connects under the facet joints and forms a hood over the dura mater thus protecting the spinal cord.

Health Problems
Associated with the Spine

1. Back Pain
This is the most frequently encountered musculoskeletal condition with an etiology of a multitude of different contributing factors. Chronic poor posture is a major factor. When the lower back is held for long periods in an arched forward position (lordosis) great pressure is put on the spinal discs causing inflammation. Muscular tension, improper lifting, and poor nutrition further weaken the supporting tissues. The lumbar spine is also the main area for general thinning and wear of the discs resulting in pain and nerve pressure.

Scroll right for picture of back pain >>>>>>>>>

Low back pain inhibits proper carriage. You must have heard the expression I cant stand it. Rage, frustration, humiliation and depression can all be present in a low back pain which is often associated with gut feelings.
Someone who cant stand up and be counted is often referred to as spineless.
At times of pain one can often feel over whelmed and helpless especially when one feels unable to carry the burden and weight of responsibilities.


Arnica (Arn)
Bryonia (Bry)
Calcarea fluorica (Calc-f)
Causticum (Caust)
Kali carbnonicum (Kali-c)
Nux vomica (Nux-v)
Phytolocca (Phyt)
Pulsatilla (Puls)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)
Ruta (Rut)














3. Neck Pain
Neck pain is the second most common medical complaint (next only to low back pain). which there is pain in the neck region between the bottom of the head to the shoulders extending sometimes to the lower shoulders and arms. Causations include inflammation, infection (staphyloccus), metabolic (osteomalacia), injury (whip lash) etc.

Scroll right for pictures of neck pain >>>>>>>>>

The neck allows vision up and down. A stiff neck can express resistance to seeing.
It is the connection between the head and the heart. Some people live in their head cut off from their heart at the neck.
Constriction of the neck inhibits both the intake of wisdom and the expression of emotions. Life becomes then a pain in the neck.


Arsenicum album (Ars-a)
Calcarea fluorica (Calc-f)
Causticum (Caust)
Gelsemium (Gels)
Graphitis (Graph)
Hypericum (Hyp)
Rhododenron (Rhod)










4. Herniated Disc
Symptoms of a herniated disc vary greatly depending on the position and size of the herniation. If the herniated disc is not pressing on a nerve there may be only a dull back ache or even no symptoms at all. However when a disc is pressing on a nerve there is pain, numbness and weakness in the area of the body to which the nerve travels. There may be a tingling ("pins-and-needles" sensation) or numbness in one leg that can begin in the buttock or behind the knee and extend to the thigh, ankle, or foot. Occasionally nerve pressure may affect bladder control.

When herniation originates in the lower (lumbar) back in addition to nerve pain, sciatica may develop in which the pain travels through the buttocks and down a leg to the ankle or foot. Other characteristics of hernia induced leg pain are:
- pain occurs in one leg only
- pain which may be constant at one time but intermittent at another.
- pain which is worse with coughing, sneezing, bending, twisting etc
- pain that is aggravated by prolonged sitting or standing
- pain which is often relieved by walking.

Scroll right for pictures of herniated disc >>>>>>>>>

Herniation in the upper part of the lumbar spine, near the ends of the lowest ribs, can produce a pain in the front of the thigh whilst the pain or numbness in the case of herniation in the neck (cervical spine) may extend to the shoulders, arms, or chest.

There is a general mental weakness and prostration resulting in loss of ability and confidence.
Irritability and frustration stemming from an inability to perform tasks previously accomplished without difficulty.

Aesaculus (Aesc)
Bryonia (Bry)
Calcarea fluorica (Calc-f)
Hypericum (Hyp)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)
Ruta (Rut)





5. Sciatica
The sciatic nerve provides nerve pathways to the entire leg. Compression may be caused by herniated disc, ankylosing spondylitis, injury, inflammation or swelling. Pain travels down the back of the leg with spasm and weakness of the related muscles. When the hernia originates from the upper lumbar area the pain can travel down the front of the leg.

Scroll right for picture of sciatica >>>>>>>>>

Sciatica is the proverbial pain in the butt.
It prevents even the slightest act of locomotion, walking, sitting playing sports as a result of which the mind is fixed or statioc.
There is an inability to go forward and move on.


Colocynthus (Coloc)
Hypericum (Hyp)
Kalmia latifolia (Kalm)
Lycopodium (Lyc)
Phytolocca (Phy)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)
Ruta (Rut)
Tellurium (Tell)






Scroll right for picture of spinal stenosis >>>>>>>>>

6. Spinal Stenosis
Lumbar spinal stenosis is a condition due to narrowing of the spinal cord causing nerve pinching which leads to persistent pain in the buttocks, limping, lack of feeling in the lower extremities, and decreased physical activity. It occurs in virtually the entire adult population as a result of the natural process of aging. In general terms the narrowing of the spinal cord produces compression on the sciatic nerve which in turn results in pain and discomfort. Treatment is similar to sciatica.
Scroll right for pictures of ankylosing spondylitis >>>>>>>>>

7. Ankylosing Spondylitis
Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a form of arthritis in which there is inflammation of the disc between the vertebral bone of the spine leading to degeneration, pain, and loss of joint motion and which over time can progress to a fused solidified vertebrae severely curtailing movement. AS may also be also seen in the hips.

Etiolology may be attributed to
- A strong genetic component
- An autoimmune component which means the natural immune system instead of protecting the body actually attacks and destroys the body's own tissues.
- Previous injury or accident

Calcarea carbonica (Calc-c)
Calcarea phosphorica
Silica (Sil)
Sulphur (Sul)
Symphytum (Symph)







Scroll right for pictures of curvature of the spine >>>>>>>>>

8. Curvature of the Spine
There are three main descriptions of this condition
Scolliosis is which the spine is curved laterally from side to side
Lordosis (swayback or saddleback) occurs when the concave and convex curves of the spine are highly exaggerated.
Kyphosis (hunchback) occurs when there is an excessive upward curvature of the upper spine. Quasimodo, the central character of Victor Hugo's novel, "The Hunchback of Notre Dame," is probably the most famous of all real or fictional sufferers of kyphosis.

Belladonna (Bell)
Calcarea phosphorica
Mercurius corrosivus (Merc-c)
Phosphoricum acidicum (Phos-ac)
Phosphorus (Phos)
Silica (Sil)





What should I do next?
Contact Dr. Peter Darashah and discuss your concerns with him.
Should  treatment be advisable a consultation can be readily arranged either in person or through eConsultation.

Dr. Peter Darashah

Ph.D.,M.Sc (Lond), B.Sc., DIHom (Pract),FBIH, MARH

Nutrition Consultant & Homeopathic Physician

(087) 2621943

Consultations held at :-

The Natural Health Centre, 34 Princes Str., Cork.

   H4H Monograph

Musculoskeletal Wellness
Musculoskeletal Wellbeing 

The Spine
(click image to enlarge)



















Back pain
Back pain













Neck pain
Neck pain









MRI scan of herniated disk - CLICK TO ENLARGE
MRI scan of herniated disk with healthy disc white and plump and degenerative disc grey and flat
(click image to enlarge)

Diagram of herniated disc - CLICK TO ENLARGE
Diagram of herniated disc
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(click  image to enlarge)






Spinal stenosis - CLICK TO ENLARGE
Spinal stenosis
(click image to  enlarge)

Ankylosis spondylitis - CLICK TO ENLARGE
Ankylosing spondylitis
(click image to enlarge)

Sacral ankylosing spondylitis
Sacral ankylosing spondylitis

click image to enlarge)

(click image to enlarge)

(click image to enlarge)



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