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Hermes once separated two serpents entwined in mortal combat to bring about peace. These serpents were later included in the medical Caduceus as a sign of wellbeing.



















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You are viewing: H4H Monographs - Musculoskeletal Wellbeing - Skeltal Muscles - Level 2
to H4H Monographs - Level 1

Musculoskeltal Wellbeing
Skeletal Muscles

The human muscular system is made up of over 600 muscles, which act in groups. All muscles are made up of the same type of material - a kind of an elastic tissue made from thousands of tiny fibers. Muscles are what enable one to do just about everything - from walking, to lifting heavy objects, to helping to pump blood throughout the body. They are classified as either involuntary or voluntary. Involuntary muscles function within the body automatically, without one being able to control them. Voluntary muscles are the the muscles that do not function automatically but are under the control of the individual.

The muscular system is incredibly important for two key reasons:
1. By turning energy into movement it iprovides the means of locomotion .
2. By turning energy into bodily activity and function it powers metabolism. Every expression of the brain is done by muscular means. The only way to express an idea is with the muscles of the larynx, mouth or tongue (spoken words) finger muscles (writing) or with the skeletal muscles (body language, dancing, running, building or fighting) to name a few.

Thus muscles are essential for both movement and metabolism.

Muscle Types The main types of muscle are:
1. Skeletal Muscles which come in pairs one muscle to move the bone in one direction and another to move it back the other way. They are also called striated muscle, because when viewed under a microscope one can see alternating stripes of light and dark. Skeletal muscles are also known as voluntary muscles because their movement is triggered manually by a conscious decision.

Some of the other major skeletal muscles include the deltoid muscle in the shoulders, the biceps and triceps in the arm, the pectoralis in the chest, the rectus abdominus in the abdomen, the quadriceps and the hamstring muscles in the legs

2. Smooth muscles are found in the digestive system, blood vessels, bladder, airways and, the uterus in the case of a female. They contract involuntarily in that their movement is unconscious and not manual. They are controlled by the nervous system automatically without a conscious decision. For example the gastrointestinal tract functions all day long without conscious thought or (for the most part) concern.

Smooth muscles generally occur in layers or sheets, with one muscle layer behind another. This is in distintinction to skeletal muscles which occur in pairs.

Examples of smooth muscles are the stomach and the digestive system, which contract and relax in order to pass food through the alimentary canal of the body. The bladder is another example of smooth muscle, and so is the uterus in women. Smooth muscles also occur in the eyes and help to keep the eyes focused. It is estimated that the eyes can move over 100,000 times in a day making them the busiest muscles in the human muscular system

3. Cardiac muscles are found only in association with the heart, and their big features are endurance and consistency. They can stretch like smooth muscle, and contract with the force of a skeletal muscle.

For classification purposes the skeletal and smooth muscles are the only two muscle types considered part of the musculoskeletal ysstem. The cardiac muscles are not included in the musculoskeletal classification. 

Common Disorders of Skeletal Muscles
1. Cramps (Charley Horses)
Muscle cramp is when a muscle contracts involuntarily and does not relax causing great resultant pain which is the distinguishing symptomsbetween cramps and convulsions, epilepsy and spasm where no pain is felt.

Scroll right for picture of Cramp>>>>>>>>>

Cramp commonly occurs when a muscle is over-used or injured. For example cramp of the calf can commonly occur as a result of swimming. In contrast they can also occur at night while in bed a phenomena which is more due to temperature than movement.

Upper leg cramps are more common with running or jumping activities. Cramps in the upper leg are also colloquially referred to as Charley Horses.

Cramp in the cervical spine (neck) can be a sign of stress.

Still another cause of cramp is working out when dehydrated or with low levels of blood potassium.

Yet more forms of cramp occur when the nerve that connects to a muscle is irritated. The classic example of this is a herniated disk irritating spinal nerves as they exit the back causing pain and cramp.

Etiological Factors

  • Muscle fatigue
  • Heavy exercise
  • Dehydration
  • Pregnancy
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Depleted magnesium or calcium stores or other metabolic abnormalities
  • Alcoholism
  • Kidney failure leading to uremia
  • Medications


Cicuta virosa (Cic)
Magnesium phosphorica (Mag-p)
Plumbum metallicum (Plumb)
Secale (Sec)
Stannum metallicum (Stann)
Zincum metallicum (Zn)





2. Convulsions, Epilepsy, Seizure and Spasm
Symptoms are similar to cramp except for the absence of pain.

Scroll right for pictures of epilepsy & seizure >>>>>>>>>

A convulsion is a condition where body muscles repeatedly and rapidly contract and relax resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body part.

In the case of epilepsy the twitching/ jerking is all over the body. The epileptic may be conscious or unconscious.

In the case of seizure the muscle is usually clenched in a rigidly held position with or without trembling.

In spasm it is usual for there to be a sudden and continuous jerking of the arm or leg lasting for up to a several minutes.

In most cases it is difficult to separate out the symptoms without laboratory tests as they are all interlinked.


  • Brief blackout followed by period of confusion
  • Drooling or frothing at the mouth
  • Eye movements
  • Grunting and snorting
  • Loss of bladder or bowel control
  • Sudden falling
  • Teeth clenching
  • Temporary halt in breathing
  • Uncontrollable muscle spasms with twitching and jerking limbs
  • Unusual behavior like sudden anger, sudden laughter, or picking at one's clothing

AURA: (symptoms before the attack)

  • Fear or anxiety
  • Nausea
  • Vertigo
  • Visual symptoms (such as flashing bright lights, spots, or wavy lines before the eyes)
  • Increased Appetite
  • Uneasiness in abdomen

Homeopahtic treatment is based on the remedy which best fits all the visible symptoms and Aura on display regardless of the precise diagnosis (ie the similimum)

Belladonna (Bell)
Calcarea carbonica (Calc-c)
Causticum (Caust)
Chamomilla (Cham)
Cicuta virosa (Cic)
Cuprum metallicum (Cupr)
Hyoscyamus (Hyos)
Ignatia (Ign)
Nux vomica (Nux-v)
Oenanthe crocata (Oena)
Opium, (Op)
Stramonium (Stram)

Strychinine (Stry)










First Aid


1. Protect the person from further injury. Clear the area around.
2. Cushion the person's head.

3. Loosen tight clothing, especially around the person's neck.

4. Turn the person onto the recovery position.  

5. Look for a medical I.D. bracelet with seizure instructions.

6. Stay with the person until they recover.  

7. If the seizure occurs in the case of an infant or child with a high fever, cool the child gradually with tepid water.DO NOT immerse the child in a cold bath.

DO NOT restrain the person.

DO NOT place anything between the person's teeth during a seizure (including your fingers).

DO NOT move the person unless he or she is in danger or near something hazardous
DO NOT try to make the person stop convulsing. He or she has no control over the seizure and is not aware of what is happening at the time.

DO NOT give the person anything by mouth until the convulsions have stopped and the person is fully awake and alert.

3. Strains
A strain is when a muscle and/or its associated tendon becomes overstretched and tears. This painful injury, also called a "pulled muscle," can be caused by an accident, improper use of a muscle, or overuse of a muscle. The damage can be in the form of tearing (part or all) of the muscle fibers and the tendons attached to the muscle. Such tearing can also damage small blood vessels, causing local bleeding (bruising) and pain (caused by irritation of the nerve endings in the area).

Scroll right for pictures of muscle strain >>>>>>>>>

Muscle Strain Symptoms

  • Swelling, bruising or redness, or open cuts as a consequence of the injury
  • Pain at rest
  • Pain when the specific muscle or the joint in relation to that muscle is used
  • Weakness of the muscle or tendons
    (A sprain, in contrast, is an injury to a joint and its
  • Inability to use the muscle at all


Protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation (known as the PRICE formula) can help the affected muscle.

  • Protect the strained muscle from further injury.
  • Rest the strained muscle & avoid all activity that caused the strain..
  • Ice the muscle area 20 mins/hr to reduce inflammation & pain. .
  • Compression with an elastic bandage can provide support and decrease swelling. ?
  • Elevate and prop up the strained area to reduce inflammation.


Arnica (Arn)
Bryonia (Bry)
Bellis perennis (Bell-p)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)
Ruta graveolens (Rut)
Silica (Sil)





4. Restless Legs
Many experience the problem of legs moving around at night when trying to sleep. Sometimes arms are flail about as well. During sleep the sub conscious can sometime be overactive and reveal itself in the form of dreams or displays of motion.

Homeopathy has the capacity to get to the mentals to provide a calm deep and refreshing sleep.

Alumina (Alumin)
Magnesium phosphate (Mag-p)
Nitric acid (Nit-ac)
Passiflora (Pass)
Rhust toxicodendron (Rhus-t)
Zincum metallicum (Zn)




5. Fibromyalgia Syndrome (FMS)
A syndrome characterised by chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles, tendons and joints without detectable inflammation. Fibromyalgia does not cause body deformity or damage however it is extremely fatiguing. Headaches, cramps, sleep disorders; various rheumatic conditions, gastro enteric problems, anxiety, irritability and depression are commonly associated complaints.

Common Causes

  • Injury or trauma including sprains and strains
  • Using a muscle too much, too soon, too often
  • Tension or stress


Arnica (Arn)
Bryonia (Bry)
Calcarea carbonica (Calc-c)
Causticum (Caust)
Causticum (Caust)
Cimicifuga racemosa (Cimic)
Hypericum (Hyp)
Kalima latifolia (Kalm)
Phytolocca (Phyt)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)







What should I do next?
Contact Dr. Peter Darashah and discuss your concerns with him.
Should  treatment be advisable a consultation can be readily arranged either in person or through eConsulta

Dr. Peter Darashah

Ph.D.,M.Sc (Lond), B.Sc., DIHom (Pract),FBIH, MARH

Nutrition Consultant & Homeopathic Physician

(087) 2621943

Consultations held at :-

The Natural Health Centre, 34 Princes Str., Cork.

   H4H Monograph


Musculoskeletal Wellness
Musculoskeletal Wellbeing 





























Thigh cramp (Charley horses)
Charley Horses
(Thigh cramp)
















Tonic & Clonic phases
(click image to enlarge

(click image to enlarge)











































Hamstring strain - CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE
Hamstring strain
(click image to enlarge)
















Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)
Restless Legs Syndrome








The pain of Fibromyalgia
(It is most common in women with 80% in their 30's to 50's.)

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