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You are viewing: H4H Monographs
- Musculoskeletal Wellbeing - Skeltal Muscles - Level
2 to H4H Monographs -
Musculoskeltal Wellbeing Skeletal Muscles
Background The human
muscular system is made up of over 600 muscles, which act in groups.
All muscles are made up of the same type of material - a kind
of an elastic tissue made from thousands of tiny fibers. Muscles are
what enable one to do just about everything - from walking, to
lifting heavy objects, to helping to pump blood throughout the
body. They are classified as either involuntary or
voluntary. Involuntary muscles function within the body
automatically, without one being able to control them. Voluntary
muscles are the the muscles that do not function
automatically but are under the control of the individual.
The muscular system is incredibly important for two key
reasons: 1. By turning energy into movement it iprovides the
means of locomotion . 2. By turning energy into bodily
activity and function it powers metabolism. Every expression of the
brain is done by muscular means. The only way to express an idea is
with the muscles of the larynx, mouth or tongue (spoken words)
finger muscles (writing) or with the skeletal muscles (body
language, dancing, running, building or fighting) to name a
Thus muscles are
essential for both movement and metabolism.
The main types of muscle are: 1. Skeletal
Muscles which come in pairs one muscle to move the bone in
one direction and another to move it back the other way. They are
also called striated muscle, because when viewed under a microscope
one can see alternating stripes of light and dark. Skeletal
muscles are also known as voluntary muscles because their movement
is triggered manually by a conscious decision.
the other major skeletal muscles include the deltoid muscle in the
shoulders, the biceps and triceps in the arm, the pectoralis in the
chest, the rectus abdominus in the abdomen, the quadriceps and the
hamstring muscles in the legs
2. Smooth muscles
are found in the digestive system, blood vessels, bladder, airways
and, the uterus in the case of a female. They contract involuntarily
in that their movement is unconscious and not manual. They are
controlled by the nervous system automatically without a conscious
decision. For example the gastrointestinal tract functions all day
long without conscious thought or (for the most part)
Smooth muscles generally occur in layers or
sheets, with one muscle layer behind another. This is in
distintinction to skeletal muscles which occur in
smooth muscles are the stomach and the digestive system, which
contract and relax in order to pass food through the alimentary
canal of the body. The bladder is another example of smooth muscle,
and so is the uterus in women. Smooth muscles also occur in the eyes
and help to keep the eyes focused. It is estimated
that the eyes can move over 100,000 times in a day making them
the busiest muscles in the human muscular system
muscles are found only in association with the heart, and
their big features are endurance and consistency. They can stretch
like smooth muscle, and contract with the force of a skeletal
purposes the skeletal and smooth muscles are the only two muscle
types considered part of the musculoskeletal ysstem. The cardiac
muscles are not included in the musculoskeletal
Disorders of Skeletal Muscles 1. Cramps (Charley Horses) Muscle
cramp is when a muscle contracts involuntarily and does not relax
causing great resultant pain which is the distinguishing
symptomsbetween cramps and convulsions, epilepsy and spasm where no
pain is felt.
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Cramp commonly occurs when a muscle
is over-used or injured. For example cramp of the calf can commonly
occur as a result of swimming. In contrast they can also occur
at night while in bed a phenomena which is more due to temperature
Upper leg cramps are more common
with running or jumping activities. Cramps in the upper leg are also
colloquially referred to as Charley Horses.
Cramp in the cervical spine (neck)
can be a sign of stress.
Still another cause of cramp is
working out when dehydrated or with low levels of blood
Yet more forms of cramp occur
when the nerve that connects to a muscle is irritated. The classic
example of this is a herniated disk irritating spinal nerves as they
exit the back causing pain and cramp.
Depleted magnesium or calcium stores or other
the person from further injury. Clear the area
Cushion the person's head.
3. Loosen tight clothing,
especially around the person's neck.
4. Turn the person
onto the recovery position.
5. Look for a
medical I.D. bracelet with seizure instructions.
Stay with the person until they recover.
7. If the
seizure occurs in the case of an infant or child with a high
fever, cool the child gradually with tepid water.DO NOT
immerse the child in a cold
DO NOT restrain the person.
NOT place anything between the person's teeth during a seizure
(including your fingers).
DO NOT move the person unless
he or she is in danger or near something hazardous . DO
NOT try to make the person stop convulsing. He or she has no
control over the seizure and is not aware of what is happening
at the time.
DO NOT give the person anything by mouth
until the convulsions have stopped and the person is fully
Strains A strain is when a muscle
and/or its associated tendon becomes overstretched and tears. This
painful injury, also called a "pulled muscle," can be caused by an
accident, improper use of a muscle, or overuse of a muscle. The
damage can be in the form of tearing (part or all) of the muscle
fibers and the tendons attached to the muscle. Such tearing can also
damage small blood vessels, causing local bleeding (bruising) and
pain (caused by irritation of the nerve endings in the
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of muscle strain >>>>>>>>>
Swelling, bruising or redness, or
open cuts as a consequence of the injury
Pain at rest
Pain when the specific muscle or the
joint in relation to that muscle is used
Weakness of the muscle or tendons
(A sprain, in contrast, is an injury to a joint and its
Inability to use the muscle at all
PRICE Protection, rest, ice, compression, and elevation (known as
the PRICE formula) can help the affected muscle.
strained muscle from further injury.
strained muscle & avoid all activity that caused the
muscle area 20 mins/hr to reduce inflammation & pain. .
with an elastic bandage can provide support and decrease swelling.
Elevate and prop up the
strained area to reduce inflammation.
4. Restless Legs
Many experience the problem of legs moving
around at night when trying to sleep. Sometimes arms are flail about
as well. During sleep the sub conscious can sometime be overactive
and reveal itself in the form of dreams or displays of motion.
Homeopathics Homeopathy has
the capacity to get to the mentals to provide a calm deep and
Syndrome (FMS) A syndrome characterised by
chronic pain, stiffness, and tenderness of muscles, tendons and
joints without detectable inflammation. Fibromyalgia does not cause
body deformity or damage however it is extremely fatiguing.
Headaches, cramps, sleep disorders; various rheumatic conditions,
gastro enteric problems, anxiety, irritability and depression are
commonly associated complaints.