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Hermes once separated two serpents entwined in mortal combat to bring about peace. These serpents were later included in the medical Caduceus as a sign of wellbeing.



















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You are viewing: H4H Monographs - Musculoskeletal Wellbeing - Ligaments - Level 2
to H4H Monographs - Level 1

Musculoskeltal Wellbeing

These are a kind of tight bandage around the joint designed to hold it in place. The ligament
bandage is made of tough, fibrous, dense, regular connective tissue comprised of collagenous fibers. Some ligaments encircle the joint completely whilst others stiffen it laterally. Ligaments thus connect bone to other bone to stabilise a joint. They do not connect muscles to bones which is the function of tendons.

The ligaments are a prime site for adhesions. Adhesions are bands of scar-like tissue that form between two surfaces inside the body and cause them to stick together. Adhesions may form around joints such as the shoulder (adhesive capsulitis) or ankles, or in ligaments and tendons.


Ligaments are interesting in that they gradually lengthen when under tension, and return to their original shape when the tension is removed. This is in contrast with tendons, which are inelastic. However, ligaments cannot retain their original shape when stretched past a certain point or for a prolonged period of time. This is one reason why dislocated joints must be set as quickly as possible: if the ligaments lengthen too much, then the joint will be weakened, becoming prone to future dislocations. Athletes, gymnasts, dancers, and martial artists perform stretching exercises to lengthen their ligaments, making their joints suppler.


The term "double-jointed" refers to people who have more elastic ligaments, allowing their joints to stretch and contort further. The medical term for describing such double-jointed persons is hyperlaxity.


The consequence of a broken ligament can be instability of the joint. Not all broken ligaments need surgery but surgery can when appropriate correct joint instability which otherwise, over time, could lead to wear of the cartilage and osteoarthritis.

Ligaments of the Knee
The knee joint, medically known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest joint in the body. Two bones make up this joint; the femur and tibia. This joint is dependent on the muscles and ligaments which surround it for strength. Four ligaments are present in the knee joint, the two collateral ligaments [medial (middle) and lateral (side)] and the two cruciate ligaments [anterior (front) and posterior (back)] which provide strength to the knee joint.

Scroll right for picture of knee ligaments >>>>>>>>>


The medial collateral ligament is located at the inside of the knee joint and prevents excessive abduction (outward movement) of the knee whilst the lateral collateral ligament is located on the outside of the knee joint and prevents excessive adduction (inward movement).  

The anterior cruciate ligament prevents excessive posterior (backward) movement of the femur on the tibia whilst the posterior cruciate ligament prevents excessive anterior (forward) movement of the femur on the tibia.


Ligaments of the Shoulder

Shoulder ligaments hold the humerus in the glenoid (socket) when the shoulder is at rest but unlike the knee, which has ligaments that are individual bands of tissue, the shoulder has thickened areas of fibrous tissue which are referred to as ligaments of which there are three different areas of thickening called the anterior, inferior and posterior glenohumeral ligamens respectively..


The anterior shoulder ligaments restrict forward motion of the humerus and tighten when  the shoulder is flexed above 90 degrees, or when it is externally rotated, as  a consequence of which it is the tissue that is injured in 95% of all shoulder dislocations.

Scroll right for picture of shoulder ligaments >>>>>>>>>


When the shoulder dislocates, it almost always comes forward and down a motion which which stretches and tears the ligament. The most common position for shoulder dislocation is when the arm is out to the side, above shoulder level, and the elbow bent to 90 degrees. In this position, the anterior capsule and ligament is tight. Any forced motion in this position will significantly stress the capsule, and can cause damage.


The inferiors shoulder ligaments hang down from the humerus almost like there is too much tissue there. However its use becomes apparent when the arm is raised at which time it tightens to restrict the arm. Although this ligament is rarely injured it can become excessively tight if the arm is immobilized for an extended period. When such an event occurs it it often referred to as frozen shoulder. 


The posterior shoulder ligaments, or the posterior glenohumeral ligament prevents excessive internal rotation of the shoulder, and excessive shoulder flexion. It is not usually injured because most dislocations occur anteriorly. However in sports bowlers and pitchers often have a very tight posterior capsule


Ligaments of The Hand and Wrist

At the lower end of the larger forearm bone (ulna) is another "styloid process" which provides attachments for ligaments to the upper and lower wrist (palmar ulnocarpal and dorsal ulnocarpal ligaments respectively).

The lower end of the smaller forearm bone (radius) has yet another "styloid process" providing attachments for the palm of the hand (palmar radiocarpal ligament) and the back of the hand (dorsal radiocarpal ligament).


The skeleton of the wrist is made up of a carpus comprising eight small carpal bones that are firmly bound in two rows of four. There is a canal through the carpus (retinaculum) through which tendons, ligaments and nerves extend to the palm.


Ligaments of the Ankle & Foot

The human foot combines mechanical complexity and structural strength. The ankle serves as foundation, shock absorber, and propulsion engine. The foot can sustain enormous pressure (several tons over the course of a one-mile run) and provides flexibility and resiliency.


The foot and ankle contains 26 bones, 33 joints; more than 100 muscles, tendons (fibrous tissues that connect muscles to bones), and ligaments and a network of blood vessels, nerves, skin, and soft tissue.

Scroll right for picture of wrist ligaments >>>>>>>>>

There are six major soft tissue structures that hold your ankle in place. Four of these are located on the outside part of your ankle and all attach to your smaller ankle bone called your fibula.
- The most commonly injured ligament of your ankle is called the Anterior (front) Talo-Fibular Ligament, or ATFL for short.
- The Calcaneal-Fibular Ligament is the second most commonly torn ligament and connecting the heel bone with ther fibula.
-The Posterior (meaning back) Talo-Fibular Ligament is the third ligament again attached the fibula.
_Finaaly the fourth ligament connected to the fibula is the Syndesmotic Ligamen, which connects the fibula to the large leg bone (tibia).

- The soft tissue just in front of your ankle is the capsule of your ankle joint and helps keep the ankle from sliding forward along with your other ligaments.
- The final stabilizing ligament is on the inside part of your ankle called the deltoid ligament which attaches the malleolus to the talus. This is sometimes referred to as the strongest ligament in your body however it frequently suffers injury.

Scroll right for picture of ankle ligaments >>>>>>>>>


Ligaments on the soles of the foot bear a lot of weight on them. An undue amount of stress placed on these valuable ligaments can result in their tearing. A tear of any of the ligaments in the foot is referred to as a sprain and is manifested with symptoms of pain, the intensity of which is dependent on the amount of tear (total or partial tear). Ligament tears usually result from a blow from outside that is directed towards the foot or by the sudden jerk of an action performed by an individual. 

Common Disorders of Ligaments

Adhesions form as a natural part of the bodys healing process after surgery in the same way that a scar forms. There is very little difference between a scar and an adhesion, except that the term "adhesion" is applied when the scar extends from within one tissue across to another, usually across a virtual space such as the peritoneal cavity.

While some adhesions do not cause problems, others can prevent tissues and organs from moving freely, sometimes causing organs to become twisted or pulled from their normal positions.

Abdominal adhesions (or intra-abdominal adhesions) are most commonly caused by abdominal surgical procedures but may also be caused by pelvic inflammatory disease. The adhesions start to form within hours after surgery and may cause internal organs to attach to the surgical site or to other organs in the abdominal cavity. Adhesion-related twisting and pulling of internal organs can result in complications such as infertility and chronic pelvic pain.

Asclepias tuberosa (Asc-t)
Bellis perennis (Bell-p)
Calcarea carbonica (Calc-c)
Calcarea fluorica (Calc-f)
Clematis erectata IClem)
Graphitis (Graph)
Kali muriaticum, (Kali-m)
Mercurius corrosivus (Merc-c)
Myristica sebifera (Myrs-s)
Silica (Sil)
Thiosinaminum (Thios)







Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)
A frozen shoulder is a shoulder joint with significant loss of its range of motion in all directions. The range of motion is limited not only when the patient attempts motion, but also when the doctor attempts to move the joint fully while the patient relaxes.

Frozen Shoulder is the result of inflammation, scarring, thickening, and shrinkage of the capsule that surrounds the normal shoulder joint. Any injury to the shoulder can lead to frozen shoulder, including tendinitis, bursitis, and rotator cuff injury. Frozen shoulders occur more frequently in patients with diabetes, chronic inflammatory arthritis of the shoulder, or after chest or breast surgery. Long-term immobility of the shoulder joint can put people at risk to develop a frozen shoulder.

Inflammation of the shoulder joint (arthritis) or the muscles around the shoulder can cause swelling, pain, or stiffness of the joint that can mimic the range of motion limitation of a frozen shoulder. Injury to individual tendons around the shoulder (tendons of the rotator cuff) can limit shoulder-joint range of motion, but usually not in all directions. Often during the examination of a shoulder with tendon injury (tendinitis or tendon tear), the doctor is able to move the joint with the patient relaxed beyond the range that the patient can on their own. 

Calcarea phosphorica (Calc-p)
Ferrum metallicum (Ferr-m)
Ferrum phosphorica (Ferr-p)
Rhus toxicodendrn (Rhus-t)
Ruta graveolus (Rut)
Sanguinaria canadensis (Sang)





Carpal Tunnel
Carpal tunnel syndrome is a common condition involving numbness, pain, tingling and instability in the wrist, hand and fingers. It occurs when pressure is put on a nerve in the wrist called the median nerve, which controls motor function in the wrist and hand. This pressure, called impingement, is most often caused by bone spurs, rheumatoid arthritis, repetitive use or injury.

Arnica (Arn)
Calcarea phosphorica (Calc-c)
Causticum (Caust)
Guaicum (Guaic)
Hypericum (Hyp)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)
Ruta graveolus (Rut)
Viola odorata (Viol-o)




Sprains, Strains & Tears
A ligament sprain is an injury that is caused by ligaments being stretched beyond their oversized capacity and possibly more. Since ligaments are tough, fibrous tissues that connect bone to bone it follows that any sprain or strain of this tissue can result in immobilisation. Although sprains can occur in any joint/ ligament they are most common in the ankle and wrist.

An ankle sprain is the most common and are more painful and take longer to heal than actually breaking the bones in that area.

The knee sprain is perhaps one of the more talked about sprains involving the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee. This is a disabling sprain common to athletes, especially in football, basketball, pole vaulting, softball, baseball, soccer and judo.

The wrists and toes are other areas of frequent sprain/ strain.

Apis (Apis)
Arnica (Arn)
Bellis perrenis (Bell-p)
Bryonia (Bry)
Calcarea fluorica (Calc-f)
Cocculus (Cocc)
Ledum (Led)
Rhust toxicodendron (Rhus-t)
Ruta (Rut)
Sticta (Stict)
Viola odorata (Viol-o)







What should I do next?
Contact Dr. Peter Darashah and discuss your concerns with him.
Should  treatment be advisable a consultation can be readily arranged either in person or through eConsulta

Dr. Peter Darashah

Ph.D.,M.Sc (Lond), B.Sc., DIHom (Pract),FBIH, MARH

Nutrition Consultant & Homeopathic Physician

(087) 2621943

Consultations held at :-

The Natural Health Centre, 34 Princes Str., Cork.

   H4H Monograph


Musculoskeletal Wellness
Musculoskeletal Wellbeing 










Knee Ligaments
(click image to enlarge)

Potential knee & ankle ligament problems
Potential knee & ankle ligament problems

Anterior Shoulder Ligament
Anterior shoulder ligament

Inferior shoulder ligament
Inferior shoulder ligament

Posterior shoulder ligament
Posterior shoulder ligament

Potential elbow & shoulder ligament strain
Potential shoulder & elbow ligament problems

Wrist ligaments - CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE
Wrist ligaments
(click image to enlarge)

Ankle ligaments - CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE
Ankle ligaments
(click image to enlarge)

Ankle strain
Ankle ligament strain





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