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The alternative medical modality of holistic, natural,

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Hermes once separated two serpents entwined in mortal combat to bring about peace. These serpents were later included in the medical Caduceus as a sign of wellbeing.



















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You are viewing: H4H Monographs - Musculoskeletal Wellbeing - Joints - Level 2
to H4H Monographs - Level 1

Musculoskeltal Wellbeing
Bones & Joints

The Bones
Whilst the number of bones varies according to the method used to derive the count the average adult skeleton consists of 206 bones. In addition to its two primary functions of support, protection and movement its other functions include the storage of certain vital nutrients and production of red and white blood cells.

Scroll right for pictures of joints >>>>>>>>>

Bones are rigid organs, lightweight yet strong and hard and come in a variety of shapes and sizes the largest of which is the femur bone. Their strength and light weight is a result of a specially toughened (solid) outer layer combined with a honeycombed (hollow) inner cellular structure. Bone tissue is not static but actively forming and remodeling in response to physical demands. As a result of its dynamic status at sites of constant excess pressure bone may respond by overgrowth resulting in a spur formation. Similarly in situations of inflammation or mineral imbalance bone may lose density and increase in brittleness (osteoporosis).  

The Joints
Joints are structures that connect individual bones and may even allow bones to move against each other to permit even greater movement. The inner lining of the joint contains a smooth synovial membrane that provides a lubricating fluid. This synovia is often the first site of joint inflammation (synovitis). Additionally there is a fluid filled sac around each joint called a bursa which function as a cushion or lubricating pad to allow a smooth surface between tendon and bone. When the bursas especially around the knee or shoulder become inflamed the condition is referred to as bursitis. 

The three main types of joint are

  • Fixed Joints so called because unlike other joints they are "fixed" or "immoveable". They have no joint cavity and are connected via fibrous connective tissue. The function is mainly for protection purposes. (eg skull)

Scroll right for pictures of joints >>>>>>>>>

  • Cartilaginous Joints These too have no joint cavity and are connected tightly to each other with cartilage but unlike fixed joints a small amount of movement is allowed (eg vertebrae)
  • Synovial Joints are situated mainly in limbs and form the greater part of the body joints. They are "freely moveable" and are characterised by being surrounded by a synovial membrane which contains the blood supply from which the lubricating synovial fluid is produced together with nutrients for healthy cartilage function as well as specialised cells to remove microbes and debris from within the joint cavity. Because of the larger range of movements of these joints there is an increased risk of injury eg dislocations.

Knee Joint
Action of knee joint showing the composite movement of three joints working in harmony
(gliding, ball & socket and hinge joints)

Different types of Synovial Joints

  • Ball & Socket Joints. This is the most versatile of all the joints in which the spherical head of one bone fits into the spherical cavity of another. (eg shoulder, hip)
  • Pivot Joints. Here a ring of bone and ligament surrounds the surface of other bone providing movement in one plane only. (eg , cervical vertebrae C1 and C2 between the atlas and axis. A further example is the radius and ulna)
  • Hinge Joints. The simplest of all joints (eg elbow, fingers, toes)
  • Gliding Joints permit a wide range of sidewise movement (eg wrist, ankle, neck)
  • Saddle Joints are more versatile than either a hinge joint or a gliding joint in that they allow movement in two directions. (eg the thumb has the ability to "cross over" the palm of the hand.)

Scroll right for pictures of joints >>>>>>>>>

Health Problems Associated with Joints

Arthritis is a group of conditions involving damage to the joints of the body of which there are over 100 different forms. The major complaint by individuals who have arthritis is joint pain caused by forceful muscle movement against stiff, painful joints and fatigue.

 Pain is often a constant and may be localized to the affected joint. The pain from arthritis occurs due to the presence of inflammation around the joint, damage to the joint from injury or disease, as well as wear and tear of joint itself.

This is a form of joint wear and tear *degenerative joint disease) of the elderly more often affects the larger weight-bearing joints such as the hips and knees. It begins in the cartilage and eventually leads to the two opposing bones eroding into each other. Initially the condition starts with minor pain while walking but soon the pain can be continuous and even occur at night. Eventually the pain can be debilitating and preventing activity. 

Calcarea carbonica (Calc-c)
Calcarea phosphorica (Calc-p)
Phytolocca (Phyt)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)



Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
A condition in which the body's own immune system starts to attack the joint lining and cartilage eventually resulting in the erosion of two opposing bone tissues. In contradistinction to osteoarthritis RA has a tendency to affect the small joints such as the fingers, knuckles and wrists although sometimes the knees and elbows may also be affected. Other distinguishing features include
- Swollen red joints (suggesting inflammation rather than wear and tear)

Scroll right for picture of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) >>>>>>>>

- Presence of associated systemic affectations (eg fever, general fatigue or body stiffness lasting more than 10 to 15 minutes)

- Joints affected on both sides rather than one sided



Belladonna (Bell)
Bryonia (Bry)
Phytolocca (Phyt)
Rhus toxicodendron (Rhus-t)






Gout can present in a number of ways although the most usual is a recurrent attack of acute inflammatory arthritis (a red, tender, hot, swollen joint) at the base of the big toe (metatarsal-phalangeal joint) which accounts for half of all gout ases. Joint pain usually begins over 24 hours and during the night. The reason for onset at night is due to reduced body temperature then.Other symptoms may include fatigue and a high fever

Scroll right for pictures of gout >>>>>>>>>


Long-standing elevated uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) is the underlying cause of gout which can occur for a number of reasons, include diet and association with the consumption of alcohol, fructose-sweetened drinks, meat, and seafood (about 12% causation), genetic predispositions, or underexcretion of urates by the kidneys and the deposition of hard uric acid crystals within the joint itself. Renal underexcretion of uric acid is the primary cause of hyperuricemia (90% of cases) while overproduction is the cause for the remaining 10%.

Benzoic acid (Benz-ac)
Colchicum (Colch)
Ledum (Led)
Guaiacum (Guaj)
Phytolocca (Phyt)








Synovitis is inflammation of the synovial membrane The condition is painful, particularly when the joint is moved. The joint usually swells due to synovial fluid collection.

Apis (Apis)
Arnica (Arn)
Calcarea fluorica (Calc-f)
Natrum muriaticum (Nat-m)
Pulsatilla (Puls)
Silica (Sil)





What should I do next?
Contact Dr. Peter Darashah and discuss your concerns with him.
Should  treatment be advisable a consultation can be readily arranged either
in person or through eConsultation.

Dr. Peter Darashah

Ph.D.,M.Sc (Lond), B.Sc., DIHom (Pract),FBIH, MARH

Nutrition Consultant & Homeopathic Physician

(087) 2621943

Consultations held at :-

The Natural Health Centre, 34 Princes Str., Cork.

   H4H Monograph

Musculoskeletal Wellness
Musculoskeletal Wellbeing 

Fixed Joint
Fixed Joint (skull)

Cartilaginous Joint
Cartilaginous Joint (vertebae)

Ball & Socket Joint
Ball & Socket Joint (Hip)

Synovial Joint
Synovial Joint

Saddle Joint
Saddle Joint (Thumb)

Hinge Joint
Hinge Joint( (Elbow)

Pivot Joint
Pivot Joint (Neck)

Osteoarthritis - the knee being held in pain







Rheumatoid arthritis - CLICK IMAGE TO ENLARGE
Rheumatoid arthritis
(click image to enlarge)








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